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Cold chain broken by what to continue? Chinas cold-chain development issues?

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Cold chain broken by what to continue? Chinas cold-chain development issues?

Date of release:2019-03-20 Author: Click:

China logistics news network: why in the demand and supply of all resources are very abundant in the case of China's cold chain has not developed? Some experts believe that it is because the cold chain industry started late, but the development speed of most emerging industries in China is by no means lower than the "shenzhen speed"; Some people think that the standardization system of the cold chain is not well established, but this cannot be justified.

Last week, 120 tons of seafood from beibu bay in guangxi were transported by the cold chain train from fangchenggang station in guangxi to dahongmen station in Beijing, realizing the normal operation of the seafood cold chain train from guangxi to Beijing. The railway cold chain train allows beijingers to enjoy cheap seafood from beibu bay.

At present, the author is involved in the planning of the sea-railway intermodal transport project between jihui railway and zalubino port in Russia, as well as the high-speed rail passenger transformation project of light trucks. After the project is completed, a cheap and high-quality railway cold chain will also enable consumers in Beijing to enjoy cheap seafood from the sea of Japan.

The concept of "cold chain" should not unfamiliar, from food safety to drug safety cannot leave the cold chain, cold chain is under the specific environment at low temperature storage, transportation and distribution, and ensure the quality of agricultural products, food, pharmaceutical and biological products, but so simple of cold chain recently formulated problems, what happened to the cold chain in China?

In terms of time, starting from the comprehensive development of the cold chain of the 2008 Olympic Games, the cold chain in China has eight years of history, the development time is long enough; In terms of economic strength, China has become the world's second largest economy, with a GDP of 67.67 trillion yuan in 2015. In terms of consumption capacity, the total retail sales of consumer goods in 2015 reached 30.1 trillion yuan, far exceeding that of Japan, the third largest country in the world in terms of GDP, while the consumption of luxury goods accounted for 46% of the global total, amounting to 116.8 billion us dollars. In addition, if calculated according to the fresh agricultural products market that accounts for the largest share of the application cold chain, the transaction scale of fresh e-commerce alone reaches 56 billion yuan. With the fresh e-commerce accounting for 10% of the market share, it is estimated that the consumption of fresh agricultural products in 2015 should exceed 500 billion yuan, driving the rapid growth of the cold chain with strong demand. In terms of investment capacity, China's fixed asset investment reached 55 trillion yuan in 2015, an increase of 10.0% over the previous year. According to the investment return of cold chain market, it is estimated that by 2020, the annual output value of global cold chain market will reach $271.9 billion, and the market prospect of cold chain investment return is promising.

Various statistics show that there is no reason why China's cold chain cannot develop, but the actual situation is difficult to be optimistic. According to the statistics of China federation of things, in 2015, the cold chain circulation rate of fruits, vegetables, meat and aquatic products in China was 10%, 26% and 38% respectively, while the cold chain circulation rate of European, American, Japanese and Korean countries was 95% and 98% respectively in agricultural products and fruits and vegetables, showing a significant gap. Although China's per capita GDP is only $8,280, it is not less than the per capita income when these European and American countries established a complete cold chain system of agricultural products. Therefore, the reason for the low proportion of China's cold chain logistics is not here.

Why has China's cold chain not developed when all resources, such as supply and demand, are abundant? Some experts believe that it is because the cold chain industry started late, but the development speed of most emerging industries in China is by no means lower than the "shenzhen speed"; Some people think that the standardization system of the cold chain is not well established, but this cannot be justified. Although in our country, due to the regional segmentation, separately formulated by the department of industry for more than 200 standard cold chain logistics difficult to unification, but before set up the European Union, European countries cold-chain standard also is fragmented, multifarious, and the China national committee for standardization configuration specification is higher, cold chain each link all have the corresponding standard, standard unification in substance; Others say that the Chinese government's food safety law is among the world's toughest because of inadequate government oversight of food safety. Some people say that the degree of informationization is insufficient, but when the European and American countries formed a complete cold chain system, there were still 30 years before the rise of the Internet. The most ridiculous argument is that China's urban concentration is insufficient, and population density cannot support cold chain consumption. However, Beijing alone has tens of millions of people, more than the population of Canada. Others believe that most cold chain links are operated by manufacturers, processors and retailers themselves, and it is difficult to cultivate third-party cold chain logistics enterprises. However, sf express established the cold transport business division at the beginning of the year, and the target value of the pharmaceutical cold chain at the end of the year is 400 million yuan.

So these so-called problems are not the key elements of the missing cold chain.

In march, in 10 ministries and commissions such as the national development and reform commission jointly issued "about strengthening the construction of logistics short promote effective guidance of investment and consumer spending, the author has in an interview with the media," opinion "on the" short board "logistics generalization of sharp and to the point, but of the solutions offer can really fall to the ground. Taking the cold chain of agricultural products as an example, according to the famous "barrel theory", due to the "broken chain" of the cold chain, most of the high-input cold chain will have low or even negative returns once there is a short board in individual links.

At the same time, because the cold chain infrastructure structure is unreasonable and unbalanced, once the cold chain system is formed, it is easy to "break the chain". Fresh electricity, for example, although the fresh agricultural products due to frequent trading clients good adhesion and formed the high attraction, high margin, the booming emerging markets, but in fact fresh electricity net income is extremely low, according to incomplete statistics, cold chain transportation cost accounts for more than 40% of the total cost, lead to domestic appliance merchant 4000 only 1% of corporate profits, 95% of the fresh electricity are in a state of "loss-leader".

Because the distribution system of agricultural products from the place of origin to consumers is relatively long and the cold chain system is huge, it is difficult for a single enterprise to cover the whole cold chain independently, thus "tragedy of the Commons" appears. For agricultural products cold chain logistics in either field picking precooling, pretreating precooling, or refrigeration and cold ship the cohesion of the "cold tally area", for ownership of the multi-agent "tragedy of the Commons", will lead to no enterprise investment is used, adding to the enterprises in the breakpoint link investment weaken, the last a whole cold chain system "tragedy".

It seems that the core of the problem clearly points to the malposition of investors in cold-chain infrastructure. European and American countries seldom and cautiously invest in national public finance, but they invest all or most of the investment in cold chain infrastructure of agricultural products by national public finance. But in recent years, our country in iron and spare no effort to invest in terms of base construction, even in this should be borne by the enterprises themselves also bought from government-led investment fields, such as the technology innovation incentives and subsidies policy in new energy, new materials, but in the most should be by the state of public finances cold-chain infrastructure investment is extremely low, resulting in related industry overcapacity.

Under the condition of 37 million tons of overall cold chain storage capacity and 90,000 cold transport vehicles in China, the current development of cold chain has problems: some cold chain warehouses are built repeatedly in clusters, while social cold chain infrastructure is seriously missing. At present, the investment of some enterprises in the cold chain infrastructure is only concentrated in the short supply chain that can be fully covered, or the Shared cold chain infrastructure supported and driven by the high profit space such as drug cold chain. However, the investment in global cold chain infrastructure and the continuation of "broken chain" only by increasing the investment in national public finance, can it arouse other investments to follow and invest in the fast and high-return cold chain links, so as to make the missing Chinese cold chain develop rapidly.

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